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An Agreement Between The Pope And The Ruler

It began as a power struggle between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV (then king, then emperor of the Holy Roman Empire) in 1076. [2] The conflict ended in 1122, when Pope Callixtus II and Emperor Henry V agreed to the concorda of Worms. The agreement required the bishops to swear allegiance to the lay monarch, who had authority “by the Lance,” but left the choice to the Church. It reaffirmed the right of the Church to invest bishops with sacred authority, symbolized by a ring and a whole. In Germany (but not in Italy and Burgundy), the emperor also retained the right to preside over the elections of abbots and bishops by the ecclesiastical authorities and to settle disputes. The emperors of the Holy Roman Empire renounced the right to elect the Pope. Thus, because of these combination factors, Henry IV had no choice but to restrain himself and needed time to parade his troops to fight the rebellion. In 1077, he went to Canossa, in northern Italy, where the pope was at Countess Matilda`s castle to apologize personally. [12] The pope was suspicious of Henry`s motives and did not believe that he was truly repentant.

[Citation required] As a gesture of repentance for his sins and drawing inspiration from his own punishment to the Saxons after the first battle of Langensalza, he wore a hairdryer and stood barefoot in the snow on the so-called Walk to Canossa. Gregor lifted the excommunication, but the German aristocrats, whose rebellion is known as the Great Saxony Revolt, were not ready to give up their chance and chose a rival king, Rudolf von Rheinfeld. Three years later, Pope Gregory reiterated his support for von Rheinfeld and excommunicated then at the Synod of March 7, 1080, Henry IV. [13] Henry, on the other hand, summoned a bishop to Bresses, who declared Gregory illegitimate. [14] The internal revolt against Henry ended the same year, when Rudolf von Rheinfeld died. [Citation required] Benedict X was elected under the influence of the Count of Tusculum, supposedly by the corruption of the voters. Dissident cardinals elected Pope Nicholas II in Siena in 1058. Nicholas II successfully waged war against Benedict X and regained control of the Vatican. Nicholas II convened a synod at the Laterin in 1059. The results were codified in the papal bull In nomine Domini. She explained that the leaders of the nobility would not have their part in the choice of popes (although the Holy Roman Emperor could confirm the election) and that the electors would be cardinals (who would later become the college of cardinals) who would meet in Rome. The bull also banned secular investment.

In 1061, all the bishops gathered in Germany (supporting the emperor) and annulled all the decrees of Nicholas II. However, the elections of Pope Alexander II and Pope Gregory VII were held according to the rules of the Church, without the emperor`s participation.